Archive for the ‘religions’ Category
Parades, concerts, shamrocks and the “wearing o’ the green” mark the celebration of St. Patrick’s Day, which falls on today. But the real-life fifth century man is even more colorful.
Ironically, Ireland’s patron saint wasn’t born Irish. Born either in England or Scotland to a church deacon, he was kidnapped as a boy to pirates, who sold him into slavery in Ireland. He grew up a shepherd until he was able to flee and return to his family.
Yet Ireland or God, or both, still had a hold on him: He had a vision in which the Irish were begging him to “come and walk among us again.” He went to France, studied with the Church and was ordained a bishop.
He set up a base in northern Ireland, then gradually won over the fierce Celtic warlords who ruled parts of the island. A popular story has him lighting a bonfire near the hill of Tara, eventually winning over King Laoghaire there. Over the next 40 years, Patrick built churches all over Ireland, baptizing thousands, ordaining priests, converting the sons of local kings.
Stories multiplied about him: that he used a three-leafed clover to show the threefold nature of God, that his walking stick grew into a tree, and that he drove all serpents off the island (although none are believed to have ever been there). It’s said also that he performed a thousand miracles during his time in Ireland.
Whatever the truth of such stories, his dedication and legacy of Celtic Christianity are beyond question. One of the most popular saints, he is honored not only in Ireland but also by the Church of England and Eastern Orthodox Christians.
Patrick himself testified his devotion in writings like his chant-like poem “The Breastplate”:
Christ be within me
Christ behind me
Christ before me
Christ beside me
Christ to win me
Christ to comfort and restore me
Christ beneath me
Christ above me
Christ in danger
Christ in hearts of all that love me
Christ in mouth of friend and stranger
Patrick died on March 17, 461, at Saul, the site of his first church. He is believed to be buried at Down Cathedral in Northern Ireland.
— JAMES D. DAVIS
Passover, called the oldest festival of freedom, starts at sundown today (Monday, April 14, 2014) for the world’s 13 million Jews. The eight-day holiday dates back some 34 centuries, recounting the deliverance of the people of Israel from slavery in Egypt.
As told in the biblical book of Exodus, the pharaoh rejected the prophet Moses’ demand to release the people, bringing a wave of plagues on the land. The last plague was the Angel of Death, who struck down the firstborn of every Egyptian household in one night. The Israelites escaped death by dashing lambs’ blood on their doorposts — a sign of faith that made the angel ‘‘pass over” those homes.
In modern Jewish homes, the festival starts with a ceremonial meal called a Seder on the first two nights, with foods symbolizing the Exodus story. The foods include a lamb shank; a piece of bitter herbs such as horseradish, for the bitterness of slavery; a bowl of saltwater, for the tears of oppression; and a mix of apples, cinnamon and wine, for the mortar used in the Egyptian bricks.
Also on the Seder plate are a roasted egg and leafy vegetables, for the springtime occasion of Passover; and the hard, unleavened bread called matzoh, for the Israelites’ haste in evacuating Egypt.
— James D. Davis
For months, drivers on I-75 in South Florida have looked curiously at the building with a spire topped by a golden angel holding a trumpet. Now they have a chance to look inside — at least until mid-April, when the doors close to the public.
The building is the newest temple of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints, better known as the Mormon Church. The temple will be the setting for “sacramental worship” for the 25,000 Mormons in South Florida. And the church is offering free tours of the temple before it’s dedicated in May.
Mormon temples are different from the church’s 20,000 “chapels” around the world. Chapels resemble regular Protestant churches, with singing, preaching and Communion service. They’re open to the public.
The 142 temples — the Fort Lauderdale building is number 143 — are reserved for special ceremonies like baptism and marital “Sealings,” which are believed to affect a person’s eternal destiny. After dedication, temples are only for Mormons in good standing.
“Temples are a central part of LDS life and culture,” said Elder William Walker, who runs all the group’s temples around the world, during a recent press tour of the 30,500-square-foot structure. “We believe that the promises and covenants we make in a temple have implications for eternity.”
What can you see at the temple? One thing will be the distinctive steepled Mormon design, which will still blend with local buildings. The structure is covered with precast, sand-colored concrete panels, with leafy patterns in the windows inspired by South Florida foliage.
The angel atop the spire is Moroni, known to believers as the celestial being who guided their prophet Joseph Smith. Covered in 22-carat gold leaf, the statue rises just two inches short of the legal 100-foot limit.
The 16.82 acres feature palms, ponds and fountains, set far back from the access road. Walker demurred on the total price tag, but he agreed with early forecasts that it would cost somewhere north of $10 million.
The tropical look is repeated inside, in carpets and murals. But many of the walls and the columns are white, often gilt-edged at the capitals and the junctures of the walls and ceilings.
Jews and Muslims have been at each others’ throats forever — or so it might seem from blogs and headlines. But a look at history would show otherwise.
“How Islam Saved the Jews,” in fact, is the title of a discussion this weekend planned for the Jewish Museum of Florida-FIU, on Miami Beach. The free forum is the first of a three-part series on Jewish-Muslim relations planned by Florida International University.
“This is so crucial right now,” says Nathan Katz, an organizer of the series and academic director of the museum. “If we can show people that their God wants them to get along with the other side, it will be a big step.”
Amanullah De Sondy, one of the participants in the FIU series, agrees.
“There is a lot of mistrust and fear between Jews and Muslims for a lot of religious, cultural and geopolitical reasons,” says De Sondy, an assistant professor of Islamic studies at the University of Miami. “But Jews and Muslims have more in common than Jews and Christians.”
The first event, starting at 2 p.m. Sunday, Nov. 10, will host a talk by David Wasserstein, a professor of history and Jewish studies of Vanderbilt University. Wasserstein will discuss how Muslim rule, including the Ottoman Empire, placed most Jews in a single state, permitting a flourishing of faith and culture.
Responding will be a panel of South Florida leaders and scholars, including FIU’s Katz and Iqbal Akhtar, plus De Sondy of UM and Mohammad Shakir of the Coalition of South Florida Muslim Organizations (COSMOS).
Second in the series will take an equally surprising title: “The Shoah (Holocaust) Through Muslim Eyes.” Giving the keynote talk will be Mehnaz Mona Afridi, director of the Holocaust, Genocide, and Interfaith Education Center at Manhattan College.
Afridi will touch on what she has called the “struggle with anti-Semitism within the Muslim community,” including lack of education about the Holocaust. Her topic is also the title of her soon-to-be published book.
Third of the three-part series, “Sufi Music and Poetry,” will bring back New York-based actor Peter Rogen and Turkish musician Alan Amir Vahab to perform works by Rumi and Hafiz. Sufism is a mystical form of Islam that emphasizes interfaith harmony and a direct connection with God.
The FIU series has some impressive support. Besides COSMOS, which includes mosques and other Muslim organizations, supporters include the Miami Coalition of Christians and Jews. Also endorsing the series is the Jewish Community Relations Council, a branch of the Greater Miami Jewish Federation.
Such endorsement was made possible largely because of Katz himself. Over the last decade and a half, he has built religious studies at FIU through hires like Erik Larson, who currently serves as the department’s chair. And through the spiritual studies program, which he directs, Katz has also brought such diverse speakers to Miami as the Dalai Lama, Marianne Williamson, Christopher Hitchens, Dominic Crossan, W.D. Mohammed, Rabbi Adin Steinsaltz and Sri Sri Ravi Shankar.
Modern eyes can be blinded by the conflict between Jews and Arabs in the Middle East, a conflict heightened by the creation of Israel in 1948. Katz says that Baghdad, Iraq, was once the greatest center of Jewish learning in the world. Jewish communities also flourished in Egypt, Morocco and Istanbul, he says.
“We have a shared history that is more friendly than not,” Katz says. “I hope some people will come away [from the series] with more appreciation and understanding, and even affection, for people on the other side of the aisle.”
Like other planners, Tudor Parfitt of FIU, who will moderate the panel talk on Sunday, voices a hope that friendships will grow out of the three-part series. “We’re all interested in promoting discussion and interfaith harmony. We hope the communities will get to know each other.”
They have an advantage in South Florida: Leaders on both sides have increased contacts for more than a decade.
JAM & All was formed by Jews and Muslims in 2001 to counter rising tensions after the terrorist attacks of 9-11 that year. Since then, it has expanded to include Christians, Buddhists and those of other faiths.
Shakir says COSMOS, the Muslim organization, was organized in 2010 with a similar impetus: to combat tensions over the planned so-called Ground Zero Mosque in New York.
Even before then, he was sent to Israel in 2002 by the Miami chapter of the American Jewish Committee to gather facts about the Second Intifada, a Palestinian uprising against Israeli rule on the West Bank. On returning, he wrote about his impressions for the Miami Herald.
“If we come out of the time box of the establishment of Israel, we can see that Jews and Muslims have been interacting for almost 1,500 years,” Shakir says. “This may not solve the problem in the Middle East, but it shows that our communities are open and willing to work together.
“We can respect disagreements, find ways to heal and move forward.”
Jews and Muslims have also met on the UM campus, discussing matters like the hijab, the headscarf worn by most Muslim women. And in 2012, De Sondy says, students watched a movie called Arranged, on marriage in an Orthodox Jewish family.
The activities have helped students of different beliefs get past stereotypes and see one another as people, De Sondy says.
“Jews, Muslims and Christians can use scripture to build bridges or burn bridges,” he says. “But when you get up close and personal, you see how connected we are.”
The Jewish-Muslim initiative is part of an expansion of Jewish studies at FIU, starting with the merger of the Jewish Museum with the university last year.
FIU has launched a project to examine Jewish communities around the world, working with advanced students. Parfitt, former professor of Jewish studies at the School of Oriental and African Studies at London University, cites work with Jewish groups in Israel and Argentina. He and a Ph.D. from Colombia plan to research Jewish communities in Burma and India.
Parfitt has also written a new book about Jewish museums around the world, due out in December.
“The idea is to be a great hub of Jewish intellectual activity,” Parfitt says.
If you go
All the events will be at the Jewish Museum of Florida-FIU, 301 Washington Ave., Miami Beach.
First Event: “How Islam Saved the Jews”
When: 2 p.m. Sunday, Nov. 10
Featuring: Lecture by David Wasserstein, professor of history, classics and Jewish studies, Vanderbilt University, with panel of local experts
Second Event: “The Shoah Through Muslim Eyes”
When: 7 p.m. Sunday, Nov. 21
Featuring: Mehnaz Mona Afridi, director of the Holocaust, Genocide, and Interfaith Education Center at Manhattan College
Third Event: “Sufi Music and Poetry”
When: 6 p.m. Tuesday, Dec. 3
Featuring: Actor Peter Rogen and singer-musician Alan Amir Vahab performing Rumi and Hafiz
Cost: Free, but RSVP requested via firstname.lastname@example.org or calling 786-972-3175.
James D. Davis
Book review: ‘What Do You Believe?’ DK Publishing, 96 pp, $16.99.
As a recent New York Times article observed, a growing number of parents are raising their children outside a church or synagogue. How to teach them about beliefs?
One answer is What Do You Believe?, a colorful, remarkably lucid introduction to religion. This slim, storybook-size book handily digests the history, beliefs and practices of the world’s major religions — and some of the minor ones — into simple terms.
With its big graphics, bright colors and picture-book format, What Do You Believe? is clearly aimed at preteens. But it’s much better than that. It’s a brisk but systematic work that combines a survey on religion, comparative religion, history of religion and even philosophy of religion. All in less than a hundred pages.
There’s a breathtaking timeline starting not in the Middle East, as so many such books do, but in Europe with cave art from 15,000 B.C.E. The book also mentions prehistoric burial mounds and stone circles, then moves to the more familiar Sumerians, Egyptians, Chinese, Indus Valley Civilizations and others.
A nice, big, double-spread chart compares six major religions — Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, Judaism and Sikhism — for their numbers, beliefs and practices. Included are main scriptures, main festivals and how many gods are worshiped.
More double-spreads go a bit more into each religion: its start, its key concepts, its main branches. You’ll also learn about four main types of yoga; the Four Noble Truths of Buddhism; the Torah and worship and acts of kindness as the heart of Judaism; how Sufism is not a separate branch of Islam, but can inform the other two main branches; and how Sikhs stress good deeds and devotion to God over rituals. The book even has a Campus Crusade-style diagram on how Jesus bridged the gap between God and humanity.
Other units scan “Native Religions,” including those of native Americans, northern tribes and Australian Aborigines; East Asian religions, such as Shinto, Taoism and Confucianism; and “New Religious Movements” like Cao Dai, Christian Science, Krishna Consciousness and Scientology. This section is elastic, though; it includes the Mormon church, which began back in 1830.
And there’s still more: closer looks at holy books, an explanation of prayer, a glimpse at rituals and festivals, distinct clothes and hairstyles, ethics of food and fasting, etcetera.
Even departures from organized religion have their say. A look at “Modern Spirituality” notes that it borrows practices from Eastern religions, but not their main beliefs and structures. And a surprisingly sophisticated unit on atheism notes subtle shades, like agnosticism and secularism. The book also notes that Buddhism, Taoism and Confucianism don’t require belief in a deity.
The section on philosophy probes the Big Questions, including what God is like, what is ultimate truth, why do bad things happen, and why do religions preach peace, then fight over it. In the latter case, the lucid answer is that some in every religion care about others, while some care more about their beliefs. The book scrupulously draws a line between fundamentalists — those who simply want to spread their teachings — and extremists, who use violence and terror to draw attention to their religion.
Especially impressive is how the book gets down to basics with questions like “What is a Religion?” For this answer, it calls on the late religion professor Ninian Smart, who developed a seven-part definition involving ritual, ethics, experience and the like. The book even neatly defines faith as “to have great trust in something or someone.”
One might say this book is colorful to a fault. It has so many big pictures, graphics and clashing colors that each page spread assaults the eye.
More basic, the book asks “What is a Religion?” on page 20 — after its gallop through religious history. If the question is important to ask, shouldn’t it be asked at the start?
And there’s at least one spelling gaffe, where the book says, “God is both transcendent (beyond the world) and imminent (inside us).” They meant, of course, “immanent,” i.e., indwelling.
But those are fairly minor flaws for the feat of orderly clarity that is this book. The biggest surprise is that it doesn’t list one author, just editors and designers. Someone deserves the credit for masterminding this.
James D. Davis
Film Review: ‘Breaking the Press.’ 20th Century Fox / Mustard Seed Entertainment. 94 minutes.
Ever since the success of the football film Facing the Giants in 2006, many producers have been trying to catch the eye of that newly found niche, the churchgoing, moviegoing public. This year we’ve already seen Soul Surfer (surfing) and The 5th Quarter (more football) — and now it’s the turn of Breaking the Press.
This newest film is a retelling of the biblical parable of the Prodigal Son, in a context of high school basketball. It’s done with some success, thanks to decent acting and believable cinematography. But because of its heavy-handed spirituality, it may not get much beyond the church audience.
Brothers Josh and Matt Conaghey are friendly enemies and competitors on the basketball court at their small town high school in Texas. Unfortunately for Matt, Josh is a hotdog with a knack for grabbing and dunking the ball. It both helps and hurts that their loving, Bible-quoting dad, Joe, is also the coach.
Josh transfers to a larger high school in Dallas for a chance at the big time. Away from Dad’s influence — he’s staying with an relative — he falls in immediately with an outrageously stereotyped li’l vamp. “His Delilah,” the narrator says. She gets him drinking and partying and foolin’ around every night.
His grades slip, his on-court performance falters, and he’s expelled from school. Too proud to return home in shame, he hits the streets, working odd jobs and sleeping in alleys.
Finally he comes to his senses and loudly repents in an over-wrought night scene on the steps of a church. He comes home, literally to his father’s arms. Matt, though, may be another matter. In Josh’s absence, he has grown into the team leader. Why take back a wannabe star who has been thinking only of himself?
Breaking the Press does a better job of showing the actual sport than The 5th Quarter did. That film showed very brief clips. This one gets into the strategy (hinted in the title itself), told by coaches, players and sports announcers. The games are shot via multiple angles — from the bleachers, a balcony, overhead, even on court among the players — capturing the excitement and nimbleness of basketball.
Trivia alert: Catch a glimpse of a horror movie on TV in the Conaghey household. It’s the 2004 flick Curse of the Komodo — which starred William Langlois, one of the screenplay writers for Breaking the Press.
Although the filmmakers said they wanted to keep from being preachy, the characters toss off God words an awful lot. Granted, it’s refreshing to hear “Jesus” in a movie as something besides a swear word. But it still seems they’re trying too hard to wedge the gospel stuff in.
Josh, played by Tom Maden, comes off as hard-headed yet naïve. He wants his way and his future, but clearly can’t handle the temptations that freedom offers him. I guess that’s true to the prodigal in the parable.
The meatier role falls to Chad Halbrook, as older brother Matt. Having felt overshadowed all his life by the talented Josh, he finally comes into his own after his brother transfers — only to face him again as he returns.
Drew Waters, a veteran of the TV series Friday Night Lights, is a credible coach and father, by turns showing leadership, tough love and self-doubt. Farah White, a Paula Abdul lookalike, is his relentlessly sweet and supportive wife.
The film makes a bit of the fact that both sons are adopted. The element was apparently to make a point of the evangelical Christian belief that when you place your faith in Jesus, God “adopts” you as his child. That’s made clear in a study guide that comes with the DVD version of the film. Oddly, though, it isn’t developed much in the film itself.
Nearly 100 women have been ordained as priests or bishops in recent years, and been condemned by the Roman Catholic Church. Their actions, feelings and spiritual urgings make absorbing material in Pink Smoke Over the Vatican.
Unfortunately, the documentary has a lot of other stuff: biased reporting, strident rhetoric, manipulative lighting, and repetition of arguments that make it feel way longer than its 58 minutes.
The title is drawn from an incident on April 17, 2005, when protestors released pink smoke in front of several U.S. cathedrals. The act was timed to the conclave that elected Pope Benedict XVI, who soon informed the world he would hold the line on male-only ordination.
“The Church is an unapologetic boys club and deeply hostile to women’s agency, power and voice,” says author Angela Bonavoglia.
The documentary is actually more current than when it came out several months ago. On March 31, the Religion News Service reported that the Rev. Roy Bourgeois, one of those quoted in the film, is under threat of defrockment for helping ordain Janice Sevre’-Duszynska. He said he’s seeking a church lawyer and plans to fight the order.
Pink Smoke takes pains to show advocates’ intellectual creds: As Kathleen Kunster speaks, a subtitle shows her M.Div., M.A. and Psy.D. degrees. They are earnest, articulate, engaging as they tell their stories and explain their beliefs.
“My faith is in my DNA,” another says.
“I felt cellularly rearranged,” one says about the instant of her ordination.
“I knew that there was a place for women on the altar more than just in a coffin or as a bride,” Sevre’-Duszynska says.
Victoria Rue of San Jose, Calif., crosses herself not in the name of the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit, but “our Creator, our brother Jesus and wisdom, Sophia.” As part of a homegrown Mass, she uses tai chi-like movements as a bodily way of worshiping.
Patricia Fresen gushes about feeling a “flame of hope and longing and incredible excitement” to hear of the ordination of seven women in 2002 on a ship on the Danube River in Europe. She herself was then ordained by two of them.
But this film doesn’t stop at reporting; it takes the feminists’ side. Only one talking head on the other side is allowed — bald, elderly Father Ronald Lengwin, a spokesman for the Diocese of Pittsburgh — sitting at his desk, backed by coldly blue-lit walls. When feminists answer, they’re shot at gardens and seashores and sunlit churches.
Lengwin says church law is not about sexism but “an understanding of one’s part in the church, male and female.” He also appeals to tradition going back to when Jesus picked 12 males as apostles.
In rebuttal, the advocates note that the Church once supported slavery, condemned money lending and allowed priests to marry.
They also cite a Bible verse that honors a woman named Junia as an apostle. And they show early frescos of women in vestments apparently saying Mass.
Pink Smoke stumbles in examining Bible verses, though. It approvingly cites Paul saying that all differences — including those of gender — are erased, “for you are all one in Christ Jesus.” But it disapprovingly cites Paul’s verse not allowing a woman “to teach or exercise authority over a man.” Why is one valid and not the other, besides the fact that it agrees with the advocates?
It also goes too far as its subjects try to link women’s ordination with their own favorite causes. Several invoke civil rights leaders like Harriet Tubman, Sojourner Truth and, of course, Martin Luther King Jr.
Bourgeois and Sevre’-Duszynska complain about the U.S. military, reflecting their focus on peace activism. Fresen tells how she defied apartheid in South Africa by opening her school to all races.
Joanna Manning of Toronto, who has treated AIDS-infected babies in Africa, somehow links condoms with women’s ordination. And several advocates push for ending the celibacy requirement for priests.
But they stumble again by claiming that if priests could marry, sexual abuse cases cases would dwindle. Pedophilia, the form of abuse most priests are accused of, has little to do with marriage: Thousands of married men abuse their own biological children.
Besides, what does all that have to do with women’s ordination? You know, the issue this film is supposed to be about?
For all its arguments, Pink Smoke actually misses a few points. It could have pointed out that Jesus picked all Jews as apostles, yet the Church feels free to ordain non-Jewish priests.
In fact, the Roman Catholic Church itself has honored three women — Catherine of Siena, Teresa of Avila and Terese of Lisieux — as “doctors of the Church,” whose writings are valid sources of Catholic teaching. If they can be thinkers, why not be pastors?
Finally, a poll in May 2010 by CBS and The New York Times found that 59 percent of American Catholics favor ordaining women. So the hierarchy’s position isn’t well-received in the pews.
As a chronicle of why some women feel driven to a ministry that the Church reserves for men, Pink Smoke is a textured, sensitive success. As a thoughtful, many-sided analysis of reasons for and against ordaining women, the documentary fails.
Whatever you think about women’s ordination, it’s bad form to tell you what to think. Isn’t that one of the things the advocates fault the Church for doing?
For more information on the documentary, visit pinksmokeoverthevatican.com.